Good assessment focuses mainly on improvement and is used to support progress. It helps learners to know how well they have learned and provides feedback on how they can do better; it encourages learners to support and help each other; it builds self-motivation, self-confidence and self-reliance. These are the principles of formative assessment. They lie at the heart of A4L (Assessment for Learning) and they form the core of the Assessment and Learning Pocketbook. Turning theory into practice, the late Ian Smith explains the difference between formative and summative assessment and then walks you through writing and sharing learning intentions and success criteria; promoting high quality interaction in lessons; verbal and written feedback; self- and peer-assessment. The book is rooted in the findings of educational researchers Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam. Professor William kindly provided advice on revisions and amendments for this 2nd edition.